Background In recent years, Cloud Gaming, also regarded as gaming on demand, is an emerging gaming service that envisions a promising future of providing million clients with novel and highly accessible gaming experiences, as it has been an active topic both in industries and research fields recently. Compared to Online Game which only stores game status, Cloud Gaming takes more advantages of cloud infrastructures by leveraging reliable, elastic and high-performance computing resources.
A large amount of scientific data needs to be transferred from one site to another as fast as possible in the computational science fields. High-speed data transfer between sites is very important, especially in the Grid computing field; GridFTP has been widely used for bulk data transfer over a wide area network. GridFTP achieves greater performance by supporting parallel TCP streams. Using parallel TCP streams improves the throughput of slow-start algorithms and lossy networks even on a single path.
Bandwidth and latency are two major factors that contribute the most to network application performance. Between each pair of switches in a network, there may be multiple paths connecting them. Each path has different proper- ties because of multiple factors. Traditional shortest-path routing does not take this knowledge into consideration and may result in sub-optimal performance of applications and underutilization of the network. We propose a concept of “bandwidth and latency aware routing”.
Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is an extension to TCP that allows multiple TCP subflows to be created from a single application socket. This is done automatically by operating system kernel implementation, such as MPTCP Kernel. MPTCP has advantages over network layer and application layer multipathing. This is because MPTCP, unlike network layer mechanisms such as Equal-Cost Multipathing (ECMP), is capable of independent congestion control on multiple paths and therefore works well in unequal networks, which is the situation of PRAGMA-ENT.